• Arbitration fees in Turkey
    COMMUNIQUÉ ABOUT INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION FEES (08.03.2016)   A Communiqué About International Arbitration Fees (hereafter referred as “Communiqué”) was published in the official gazette number 29647 by the Ministry... »
  • Is Turkish Data Protection law similar to GDPR
    Is Turkish Data Protection law similar to EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)   According to Turkish law on Data Protection (herein after "Data Protection Law"), there are some similar rules with GDPR, but also... »
  • Lawyers in Turkey and practice of law in Turkey
    The compatible or incompatible activities with law practice are regulated under a law dated 1969. Pursuant to article 11 of the Law, "Services and duties rendered in exchange for payments such as a monthly salary,... »
  • Company law in Turkey
    The New Turkish Commercial Code has enterred into force in 2012.   The main goal is to develop a corporate governance approach that meets international standards.  The shareholding structure has changed radically.... »
  • Energy and environment in Turkey
    Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world in parallel to its economic growth registered in the last eight years and is rapidly gaining a competitive structure. The Turkish Electricity Transmission... »
  • Rules and tax on the transfer of dividends from Turkish companies to foreign shareholders
    There is no limitation for repatriation of profits unless the company is monitored by an upper supervisory body (such as the Capital Market Board or the Banking Regulatory and Supervisory Board), whose approval is required. After... »
  • Company incorporation in Turkey
    In order to set up a limited liability company ("LLC") in Turkey, at least two shareholders are required. The minimum share capital is 5.000 TL (approximately USD 3300,-).  Shareholders of an LLC, who wish to establish... »
  • Debt collection in Turkey
    From outside, debt collection in Turkey may appear as complicated. However, the procedure to recover an unpaid debt, due to invoice or contractual clause, is quite similar to the systems in Europe.  The first stage is... »
  • Pledge guarantee under Turkish laws
    Under Turkish law, pledge of movables, in principle, requires two steps:   (i) the creation of a pledge agreement (which does not, generally, need a special form), and  (ii) the delivery to and possession... »
  • Differences between a Joint Stock Company and a Limited Liability Company
    The following are some of the most important differences between a Joint Stock Company and a Limited Liability Company under Turkish laws :    • There is no minimum or maximum number of shareholders for Joint Stock... »
  • Mandatory lawyer in companies
    According to Law 1136 (Code of Lawyers) Article 35, joint stock companies over 250.000 TL (approximately 90.000 USD) shall have a mandatory lawyer.    The companies have the choice between hiring a law firm or employ... »
  • Mortgage under Turkish laws
    A mortgage denominated in Turkish Lira or in the event it secures a loan obtained from local or foreign credit institutions in a currency other than Turkish Lira, in such currency, can be created by registering such mortgage... »
  • Renewable energy in Turkey : Wind potential
    The Turkish government encourages investors to implement energy projects in Turkey with new incentives on renewable energy. This ensures that the government's feed-in tariff will accelerate investment projects in the coming years. Turkey's... »
  • Commercial arbitration in Turkey
    Inlawco is member of the European Center for Arbitration and Mediation, that offers to international investors, an impartial, independant and expert arbitration in Turkey. Therefore, companies may have a fair and professional trial,... »
  • Investment policy regarding Turkey's infrastructure
    According to the Ministry of Transport, the total revenue from all toll roads in Turkey in 2008 was USD 121 million. The total revenue from the two bridges crossing the Istanbul Strait was USD 100 million during the same period.... »
  • Communiqué about international arbitration fees in Turkey
      08.03.2016 COMMUNIQUÉ ABOUT INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION FEES (08.03.2016) A “Communiqué About International Arbitration Fees” (hereafter referred as Communiqué) was published in the official gazette number 29647... »
  • Data Protection under Turkish laws
    Processing of personal data a legal concern in Turkey since the enactment of the European Union Data Protection Directive No. 95/46/EC. Turkey being in accession step within EU, a Draft Law Concerning Protection of Personal Data... »
  • Agriculture sector in Turkey
    Key figures about Turkish agribusiness: - Turkey is the world leader in the production of dried figs, hazelnuts, sultanas/raisins and dried apricots.  - The total exports of agricultural products (including processed... »
  • PPP project in Kazakhstan
    Kazakhstan's construction of the West Europe-West China International Transit Corridor is almost finished, 50% of its section completed.  Inlawco is actively involved in the legal structuring of one of the loans to Turkish... »
  • Foreign law firms in Turkey, to agree with Turkish law firm
    In order for a foreign law firm to practice in Turkey, they are obliged to make an agreement with a Turkish law firm in Turkey, rather than establishing partnerships. Likewise, they are under an obligation to include the name... »
  • Turkish infrastructure sector
    The Turkish infrastructure sector attracts more and more investors every day, focusing on long-term business opportunities.  The investment figures announced by the Turkish government regarding the Southeastern Anatolia... »
  • Arbitration in Turkey and law firms in Turkey
    Turkey's status among "world's most growing economies" brought along the need to modernize the law system. For drawing the foreign investors' attraction, making arbitration in Turkey friendly jurisdiction was an important step. Turkey... »
  • Transportation and Logistics in Turkey
    Turkey lies between Europe and Asia serving as a bridge geographically, culturally and economically.  In Turkey, investments in the transportation system are concentrated on land transportation infrastructure and... »
  • Hydropower potential in Turkey
    Turkey has become one of the fastest growing energy markets in the world in parallel to its economic growth registered in the last eight years and is rapidly gaining a competitive structure. The Turkish Electricity Company estimates... »
  • Protection of trademark right in Turkey
    In order to be protected, companies' trademarks shall be registered in Turkey. Indeed, this is one of the main differences between patent and trademark, the second needing a local registration in each country.  Once registered... »
  • Competition laws in Turkey
    Turkish Law on the Protection of Competition (law no. 4054) is regulating the major anti trust rules that applies to companies operating in Turkey. It aims to protect the competition between and prevent practices that are contrary... »
  • Financial sector in Turkey encouraged by the government
    Turkish government has taken steps in order to ensure that the financial system complies with international standards. Thus, EU and OECD norms form the basis of the Turkish financial system as regards accounting and supervision... »
  • Commercial Litigation in Turkey
    Turkey shall adopt quickly a new procedural law to speed up commercial litigation in Turkey. Indeed, the Turkish litigation practice has never had a positive image, especially from foreign companies' standpoint. While... »